Sjogren's Disease Terms

“You Mean it Isn’t In My Head?” GLOSSARY and References

Glossary

Antibody – A protective protein created by immune cells that responds to identified foreign substances by eliminating them from the body.

Antigen – Unique markers on the surface of a substance that identify it as foreign.

Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) – An antibody that is programmed to attack the nucleus of our own cells of a certain type.

Artificial Trans Fats – A form of unsaturated fat that is created by converting liquids into semi-solid oils (hydrogenation) to extend the shelf life of foods sold in stores.

Autoantibodies – Antibodies against one’s own tissues.

Biologics – A type of DMARD that incorporates real biological material and uses lab engineering to create proteins that alter the way specific parts of the immune system work. It either comes as an injection or in some cases a patient must go into a doctor’s office for an infusion. 

Cevimeline Hydrochloride (Evoxac) – A prescription medication that promotes tear and saliva production.

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) – This is a substance that rises in response to inflammatory cytokines. It signals other parts of the immune system to come and clean up the dead or dying cells that have been attacked.

Cyclosporine (Restasis) – Prescription anti-inflammatory eye drops. Patent expires 2024.

Cytokines – Chemical messengers that alert immune cells to an invader and tell them where to find it.

Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) – Prescription medications that reduce inflammation throughout the body.

Endocrine Glands – Different glands found in specific places in the body that produce and release hormones into the bloodstream.

Epithelial Tissue – Sheets of cells which protect surfaces like skin, or line/cover organs within the body.

Exocrine Glands – These glands are designed to produce and release fluids into tissues throughout the body to make things operate smoothly. 

Hydroxychloroquine (HCL) (Plaquenil) – A DMARD. It’s not known exactly how this drug helps rheumatic disorders, but it’s believed it might interfere with communication within the immune system – it’s not an immunosuppressant that would make you susceptible to infection but may require routine blood work to monitor white blood cell counts. 

Inflammation – The first step in our body’s system of defense and repair. It involves an intricate communication system of chemical messengers throughout the body, which can be triggered in several ways. Under normal circumstances, an injury or foreign substance invading the body will trigger the cells of the immune system to come to the rescue and start the healing process ASAP. 

La (SSB) – One of the autoantibodies that may be present in Sjogren’s.

Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution (Xiidra) – Prescription anti-inflammatory eyedrops. Patent expires May 29, 2029.

Lymphocyte – A type of white blood cell that is meant to fight infection. In Sjogren’s lymphocytes attack our exocrine glands.

Methotrexate – A DMARD. This drug is an immunosuppressant, so you will be more susceptible to bacterial or viral infections.

Neuropathy – Damage to nerves. Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the nerves that extend out beyond our brain and/or spinal cord to the different parts throughout the body. 

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) – Can be over-the-counter drugs like Ibuprofen, or prescription medications like Meloxicam (Mobic).

Omega-3 Fatty Acids – These essential fatty acids are considered (very) “good” fats. Studies have consistently shown a trend toward reducing inflammation when we eat them.

Omega-6 Fatty Acids – An essential fatty acid we must consume through food, but too much is linked to increased inflammation.

Pathogen – An outside germ or substance that enters the body and is identified as an invader that needs to be removed from the body by the immune system.

Pilocarpine (Salagen) – A prescription medication that promotes tear and saliva production.

Prednisone – A corticosteroid used for short-term treatment of musculoskeletal pain.  

Punctal Plugs – Very small plugs inserted into the eye duct where tears normally drain into the back of your nose and throat. This helps keep tears on your eyes for longer. 

Rheumatoid Factor (RF) – This protein is an antibody that targets joints or glands. It was the first one identified in people with rheumatoid arthritis, but it turns out it’s present in people with a number of autoimmune diseases. 

Ro (SSB) – One of the autoantibodies that may be present in Sjogren’s.

Sedimentation Rate (Sed Rate) – During inflammation, the liver releases a protein that makes red blood cells stick together. When they stick together, they become denser/heavier clumps. The sed rate test measures how fast they sink in a test tube that’s been spun in a centrifuge. 

References

  1. Pijpe J, Kalk WW, Bootsma H, Spijkervet FK, Kallenberg CG, Vissink A. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Jan;66(1):107-12. doi: 10.1136/ard.2006.052647. Epub 2006 May 25. PMID: 16728458; PMCID: PMC1798390.
  2. Vivino, F. B., Carsons, S. E., Foulks, G., Daniels, T. E., Parke, A., Brennan, M. T., Forstot, S. L., Scofield, R. H., & Hammitt, K. M. (2016). New Treatment Guidelines for Sjögren’s Disease. Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America, 42(3), 531–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rdc.2016.03.010
  3. Augustine S. Lee, MD, R. Hal Scofield, MD, Katherine Morland Hammitt, MA, et al. (2020).Consensus Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Pulmonary Disease in Sjogren’s. CHEST Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.011
  4. https://www.hopkinssjogrens.org/disease-information/sjogrens-syndrome/neurologic-complications/
  5. Patterson, E., Wall, R., Fitzgerald, G. F., Ross, R. P., & Stanton, C. (2012). Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2012, 539426. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/539426
  6. Adam O, Beringer C, Kless T, Lemmen C, Adam A, Wiseman M, Adam P, Klimmek R, Forth W. Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2003 Jan;23(1):27-36. doi: 10.1007/s00296-002-0234-7. Epub 2002 Sep 6. PMID: 12548439.
  7. Isabelle Aeberli, Philipp A Gerber, Michel Hochuli, Sibylle Kohler, Sarah R Haile, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Heiner K Berthold, Giatgen A Spinas, Kaspar Berneis, Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 94, Issue 2, August 2011, Pages 479–485, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.013540
  8. Case Western Reserve University. (2018, March 15). Artificial sweetener could intensify symptoms in those with Crohn’s disease: Promotes ‘bad’ bacteria and intestinal inflammation; findings may guide dietary habits in human patients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180315155411.htm
  9. https://www.hss.edu/conditions_understanding-rheumatoid-arthritis-lab-tests-results.asp
  10. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/sed-rate/about/pac-20384797#:~:text=Results%20from%20your%20sed%20rate,one%20medical%20practice%20to%20another.
  11. Howard Tripp N, Tarn J, Natasari A on behalf of the United Kingdom Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome Registry, et al. Fatigue in primary Sjögren’s syndrome is associated with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. RMD Open 2016;2:e000282. doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2016-000282
  12. Natasari, A.S., Tarn, J., Fischer, R. et al. Exploring the biological basis of fatigue using primary Sjögren’s syndrome as a disease model. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 14, A1 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-S1-A1
  13. Roescher, N., Tak, P. P., & Illei, G. G. (2009). Cytokines in Sjögren’s syndrome. Oral diseases, 15(8), 519–526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01582.x
  14. Masters, R. C., Liese, A. D., Haffner, S. M., Wagenknecht, L. E., & Hanley, A. J. (2010). Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma. The Journal of nutrition, 140(3), 587–594. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.116640
  15. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/taking-aim-at-belly-fat
  16. Sureda, A., Bibiloni, M., Julibert, A., Bouzas, C., Argelich, E., Llompart, I., Pons, A., & Tur, J. A. (2018). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers. Nutrients, 10(1), 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010062
  17. Lee I, Shiroma EJ, Kamada M, Bassett DR, Matthews CE, Buring JE. Association of Step Volume and Intensity With All-Cause Mortality in Older Women. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(8):1105–1112. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.0899
  18. Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TY, Lee MC, Chan HT, Tsao CK, Tsai SP, Wu X. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2011 Oct 1;378(9798):1244-53. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60749-6. Epub 2011 Aug 16. PMID: 21846575.
  19. Arem H, Moore SC, Patel A, Hartge P, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Visvanathan K, Campbell PT, Freedman M, Weiderpass E, Adami HO, Linet MS, Lee IM, Matthews CE. Leisure time physical activity and mortality: a detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jun;175(6):959-67. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0533. PMID: 25844730; PMCID: PMC4451435.
  20. Kraus W, Bhapkar M, Huffman K, Pieper C, Krupa Das S, Redman L, Villareal D, Rochon J, Roberts S, Ravussin E, Holloszy J, Fontana L. 2 years of calorie restriction and cardiometabolic risk (CALERIE): exploratory outcomes of a multicentre, phase 2, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & EndocrinologyVol. 7No. 9p673–683 Published: July 11, 2019
  21. Lee, Y.J., Lee, A., Yoo, H.J. et al. Effect of weight loss on circulating fatty acid profiles in overweight subjects with high visceral fat area: a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 17, 28 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0323-4
  22. Chrousos, G.P., Boschiero, D. Clinical validation of a non-invasive electrodermal biofeedback device useful for reducing chronic perceived pain and systemic inflammation. Hormones 18, 207–213 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42000-019-00098-5
  23. Wilcox, Susan E. Improving the Definition of Exercise Maintenance: Evaluation of Concepts Related to Adherence, dissertation, August 2002; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3195/: accessed December 28, 2020), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu.
  24. Ford ES. Does exercise reduce inflammation? Physical activity and C-reactive protein among U.S. adults. Epidemiology. 2002 Sep;13(5):561-8. doi: 10.1097/00001648-200209000-00012. PMID: 12192226.
  25. Beavers KM, Brinkley TE, Nicklas BJ. Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation. Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Jun 3;411(11-12):785-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.069. Epub 2010 Feb 25. PMID: 20188719; PMCID: PMC3629815.
  26. Loy, B. D., O’Connor, P. J., & Dishman, R. K. (2016). Effect of Acute Exercise on Fatigue in People with ME/CFS/SEID: A Meta-analysis. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 48(10), 2003–2012. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000990
  27. Friedman, H., Klein, T. W., & Friedman, A. L. (1996). Psychoneuroimmunology, stress, and infection. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  28. Abbott R D, Sadowski A, Alt A G (April 27, 2019) Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet as Part of a Multi-disciplinary, Supported Lifestyle Intervention for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Cureus 11(4): e4556. doi:10.7759/cureus.4556
  29. Della Corte, K. W., Perrar, I., Penczynski, K. J., Schwingshackl, L., Herder, C., & Buyken, A. E. (2018). Effect of Dietary Sugar Intake on Biomarkers of Subclinical Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies. Nutrients, 10(5), 606. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050606
  30. Wahbeh, H., Haywood, A., Kaufman, K., & Zwickey, H. (2009). Mind-Body Medicine and Immune System Outcomes: A Systematic Review. The open complementary medicine journal, 1, 25–34. https://doi.org/10.2174/1876391X00901010025
  31. Cooney  GM, Dwan  K, Greig  CA, Lawlor  DA, Rimer  J, Waugh  FR, McMurdo  M, Mead  GE. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004366. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6.
  32. Graham EK, Bastarache ED, Milad E, Turiano NA, Cotter KA, Mroczek DK. Physical activity mediates the association between personality and biomarkers of inflammation. SAGE Open Med. 2018 May 15;6:2050312118774990. doi: 10.1177/2050312118774990. PMID: 29796267; PMCID: PMC5956639.
  33. Konijeti, G. G., Kim, N., Lewis, J. D., Groven, S., Chandrasekaran, A., Grandhe, S., Diamant, C., Singh, E., Oliveira, G., Wang, X., Molparia, B., & Torkamani, A. (2017). Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 23(11), 2054–2060. https://doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000001221
  34. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/target-heart-rates
  35. Wu, S. H., Shu, X. O., Chow, W. H., Xiang, Y. B., Zhang, X., Li, H. L., Cai, Q., Ji, B. T., Cai, H., Rothman, N., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W., & Yang, G. (2012). Soy food intake and circulating levels of inflammatory markers in Chinese women. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(7), 996–1004.e10044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2012.04.001
  36. https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2013/01/23/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-mecfs-deconditioning-exercise-and-recovery-the-klimas-cdc-talk/
  37. https://www.cdc.gov/me-cfs/healthcare-providers/clinical-care-patients-mecfs/treating-most-disruptive-symptoms.html
  38. Patterson, E., Wall, R., Fitzgerald, G.F., Ross, R.P., Stanton, C. (2012). Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/539426
  39. https://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/tissue_types/epithelia/epithelia_function.php
  40. University of Leeds. This Histology Guide: Epithelia. https://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/tissue_types/epithelia/epithelia_function.php
  41. Lumen Learning. Anatomy and Physiology: Epithelial Tissue. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/openstax-anatomyandphysiology/chapter/4-2-epithelial-tissue/
  42. Anaya JM, Shoenfeld Y, Rojas-Villarraga A, Levy RA, Cervera R, editors. Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside [Internet]. Bogota (Colombia): El Rosario University Press; 2013 Jul 18. PMID: 29087650.
  43. Tzioufas AG, Voulgarelis M. Update on Sjögren’s syndrome autoimmune epithelitis: from classification to increased neoplasias. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Dec;21(6):989-1010. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2007.09.001. PMID: 18068857.
  44. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00219266.1994.9655401?needAccess=true
  45. Sorokin L., Klein G., Mugrauer G., Fecker L., Ekblom M., Ekblom P. (1992) Development of kidney epithelial cells. In: Fleming T.P. (eds) Epithelial Organization and Development. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2354-9_6